Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz, for which the town of Lüderitz is named after, was a German merchant and the founder of German South-West Africa in the late 1880s. The town was Imperial Germany's first colony, and would eventually become Namibia in 1990.
As part of the process of founding the colony and getting German protection, Lüderitz asked the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck for protection. After this was granted, he set about actually buying the land and establishing the city.
Today the town is a sleepy mix of colonial architecture and dilapidated buildings. I spent one night there on the way to Sossusvlei from Keetmanshoop and I think that was enough given that there's only about 12,000 people that are living there. It makes a great base from which to explore the nearby ghost town of Kolmanskop, which I highly recommend visiting if you get the chance.
Downtown Lüderitz at sunset.